ENZYMES

Properties and factors affecting enzyme activity

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WHAT IS AN ENZYME?
• Biological catalysts:
o Speed up rate of reaction without being used up
o Reaction need to be fast to sustain life
• Proteins:
o Globular (spherical shaped)- soluble in water
o Polar side chains exposed on surface, non polar chains point inwards
• Consist of one or more polypeptide chains:
o Minority are Monomeric: a single polypeptide chain with 100- 300 amino acids linked by peptide bonds, tertiary structure
o Majority are Oligomers: two or more polypeptide chains (quaternary structure with covalent bonds), multiple binding sites
• Active sites/ substrate binding site:
o a small cleft/ pocket in an enzyme
o Substrate: molecule enzyme acts on or input to an enzyme- catalysed reaction
o Product: outputs of enzymic action
o Formed by folding of polypeptide chain into a small 3D shape region- binds to specific substrate only
o Enzyme- substrate complex held by weak hydrogen bonds
• Has specific activity:
o Acts on one specific substrate
o Bond specificity- acts on one type of chemical bond
o Group specificity- act on molecules with particular functional groups

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$15 (USD) per hour (INDIVIDUAL)

$20 (USD) per hour (GROUP)

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